美国个人购房的基本流程讲解(一)

NEWS_AUTHOR:前海鷹眼

UPLOAD_DATE:2018-08-13

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Prof. Tim Tan

 

事实上,在美国各地购买房产的流程各州都区别,甚至可能各个郡县都不同。所以,专门请教针对海外地产投资的入门同学,鹰眼学院校长 Prof. Tim 以准确的英文逐一细致讲解了这一流程,写了篇比较清晰的攻略出来,每个步骤之后小编也逐一再做了翻译讲解。这里,我们就拿目前汇美聚财产品发展得较为全面深入,全美综合考虑起来也最值得作为投资考虑的目的地之一的德克萨斯州为例吧:

 

Basically, the home buying process in the US will vary from state to state, city to city or even county to county. Specifically, let me explain this process in Texas.

 

Generally, there are two forms of buying, with full amount of cash or with mortgage loan from financial institutions, e.g. commercial banks. The majority of sellers will prefer buying with full cash to mortgage loan because it is time-consuming, generally two to three months in Texas, for buyer to pass the mortgage loan application tests in the commercial bank and there exists risks that the bank may fail the applicants. Moreover for the time being, as a foreigner there will be hardly any chance to successfully pass the loan application tests in a US local bank without a cash flow record of at least one year. Therefore I will focus on the full cash purchase process in the content hereof.

 

首先明确,就是说跟国内一样有两种购买方式,全款付清或者从金融机构贷款,例如商业银行等。美国普通卖家当然是希望全款付清为好,因为申请贷款需时不少,一般要两到三个月来通过德州的商业银行的申请考核,而且有可能有申请失败的风险。而且作为单纯的外国购房者,在当地没有至少最近一年的任何的流水和信贷记录,通过按揭申请的机会非常低。所以现在做案例讲解的话我们还是以全款作准。

In this process, normally there will be five parties involved, respectively buyer, seller, buyer’s agent, seller’s agent and the title company. In order to let you grasp the whole purchase flow, I will further explain step by step.

 

明确了基本购买方式后,各位同学要清楚,根据标准的美国购房流程定义,牵涉到整个交易流程的会有五方参与,分别是买家,卖家,买家经纪人,卖家经纪人和过户公证公司(title company)。当然如果直接选择汇美聚财产品,事实上鹰眼已经承担了卖家,卖家经纪人和买家经纪人的角色,基本已经代劳了过户前的一切麻烦手续。

 

Step 1: If as a foreigner, you are not familiar with or do not know too much about the local real estate market in the US, it is strongly recommended that you should contract with a local real estate agent. An experienced real estate agent can capture accurate market information and find the best fit property as per your special personal requests. At the same time, an experienced agent should be able to negotiate better contract terms and purchase price on behalf of the buyer. More importantly, a good and responsible agent will be able to ensure the legitimacy of the whole purchase and sale transaction and help you avoid unnecessary lawful issues.

 

当然,对于其他一般海外购房者而言,作为外国人,找个靠谱的中介很重要啦。尤其要注意的是法律风险,因为在交易之前一定要搞清楚物业的产权情况和过往记录是吧。尤其是美国这种凡事讲法律的国家,跟足法律程序做事非常重要,如果贪便宜买到一些产权情况不明或者有其他状况的物业将会给后续带来巨大麻烦。

 

MLS is a platform that shows most updated public data of properties and connects both listed buyer’s and seller’s agent to facilitate purchase and sale transaction between potential buyer and seller. It is worth mentioning that only data of the property itself can be publicized on the MLS, data that will endanger privacy and safety of both buyer and seller, such as contract terms or vacant times for showings, will not be accessible. With MLS, on behalf of the buyer, the buyer’s agent can connect with the seller’s agent with good track records, which will highly improve the efficiency to find a quality property based on the buyer’s needs.

 

上市房地产公开信息综合网(MLS multiple listing service)是咱们个人获取在公开市场出售的房产的主要信息来源了,市场上绝大部分的交易讯息是经由不动产协会的互联网站所提供的资讯(MLS)所完成。但是人家强调了数据不会完全披露,隐藏了买卖双方的隐私信息,例如合同细节和空置时间等。MLS 上面,经过买家授权的经纪人就可以做功课来优化选择了。

 

补充说一句,根据鹰眼团队了解,休斯顿不动产协会大约有25,000个会员,这25,000位有执照的会员背后所掌握的投资金额极其庞大,因此每当网站上出现一个好的房产价格,立刻会有蜂拥而至的买家来竞标,也因此透过这一种大家经常使用的交易管道,得到理想交易机会的机会不时常出现,一旦出现的时候,机会也是稍纵即逝。为了弥补MLS网站的不足,目前休斯顿地区还有第二市场的存在,这一个市场最主要是针对特殊的卖家而存在,例如卖方限定必须要现金交易(有些房产无法取得买方贷款),或者卖方必须要在极短的时间之内过户(例如离婚,或者卖方急需资金以供商业周转),或是卖方没有能力负担在房屋上市前需要做的装修工作之周转金,在这个第二市场,买方比较容易得到好的投资机会。而鹰眼团队的休斯顿子公司,超群房地产公司(ERG LLC在休斯顿的房地产业不但经验丰富而且声名卓著,目前有17位不动产经纪人每天关注着休斯顿地区房地产市场的变化,对于任何投资人应该关注的讯息都会立即回报公司,另外 ERG公司 与五家以上专门从事第二市场业务的不动产公司有密切联系,不但每天新上市的房屋资料会即时传送到公司,而且时常能够在房屋上市之前就优先取得看房子的权利,以期不漏过任何好的投资机会。

 

Step 2: When having a target property, buyer’s agent will make different oral offers to seller’s agent until both seller and buyer come up with an agreement on the transaction price and closing date. Owners of some popular houses, especially those obviously under market value, might receive quite a few offers from different buyers to make the houses on the market very competitive. Therefore the network and experience of an agent for the buyer will be essential.

 

选定了标的之后,买家经纪人就会继续帮咱们做跟对方接洽的工作,卖家可能同时收到好几份来自不同经纪人的 offer,所以这时候买家经纪人的人脉经验就很重要了。如同上面提到的,如果这次交易主要为了投资并不是自住,那么能不能找到并且拿到一栋回报优异的物业的确是非常考验 agent 资历和能力的事情,经验较浅的 agent 常常看到一栋"笋盘挤都挤不进去就被拿走了。而且针对一栋物业的真实价值几何,在议价方面也需要经纪人能够迅速做出判断,所以在一开始接洽阶段可以讲成败都取决于经纪人的能力。在这方面,鹰眼在休斯顿当地子公司 超群建设公司(EC LLC) 在过去15年里拥有修理、装潢、以及建筑房屋的丰厚经验,目前EC 的公司业务主要由和先生(Mr. Sam He) 负责, Sam 拥有德州不动产销售执照多年,而且曾经获得HAR 的最佳销售奖项,他同时拥有德州不动产检验执照多年,对于房屋内外,从上到下任何可能发生的问题都能够一目了然,他曾经亲自参与数十栋房屋的装潢以及修理工作,举凡地基、屋顶、地板、空调、电路系统、上下水系统、油漆工程、家电....等等工作都了若指掌,同时建立了各类包工的连系网,他能够以最低的成本将房屋装修成符合目前市场潮流,同时受到房客欢迎的成品,并且在最短的时间之内精确的估算出建筑成本。

 

Step 3: Once the property owner accepts the buyer’s offer, a purchase and sale contract will be signed between them. Names of this kind of contract called can be different in different states. In Texas, it is called ONE TO FOUR FAMILY RESIDENTIAL CONTRACT (for resale), which has been promulgated and approved by the Texas Real Estate Commission (TREC) and it is available on TREC’s official website http://www.trec.texas.gov. This model contract downloaded from TREC’s official website only provides standard terms for normal transactions. Should there be any additional or special terms for complex transactions, both buyer and seller can negotiate to alter in the contract.

 

这一段就是介绍一旦双方初步达成交易意向后,具体签署的合同的情况了。需要记得的是 德州物业委员会 TREC Texas Real Estate Commission,这个机构在后续的操作中也会一直出现,房屋在交易过程中及过户后的租售流程中都会受该机构条例的规范。

 

Step 4: Normally a 5-day option period will be given to buyer counted from the effective date when the purchase and sale contract is signed by both parties. An option period is a period within which buyer has an unrestricted right to terminate the purchase and sale contract. However this 5-day option period can be guaranteed only when the buyer pays a non-refundable option fee, usually USD300 to USD500 in Texas, directly to the owner within 3 days from the effective date of the contract. Extension of option period and amount of option fees will always be negotiable, again depending on the experience of buyer’s agent and buyer’s bargaining power.

 

第四步就是到一个通常为为期5天的 option period 的冷静期,但是需要交纳一定的意向金。反悔不退哦。当然这个具体操作还是要给予买卖双方的议价能力了。


第一讲就先讲到这里,第二讲会继续讲购房流程和一些相关事宜,是与国内不同的,大家持续关注哦~



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